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The Research on IGOs and NGOs in International Politics
In the past a few years after the Second World War,the focus of international relations has been increasingly shifted to economic environmental and cultural aspects,leading to a result that the roles of economic,environmental,cultural and other factors have been significantly valued(Qin,2004).Inter-Government Organizations(IGO)used to be limited outside of international politics but they have been playing importantly unique roles in international community due to their multilateral nature,such as the United Nations(UN),the European Union(EU)and so on.In the meanwhile,the number of Non-Governmental Organizations(NGO)has been rapidly increased with widespread impacts.Basically,it is reflected that the international community is heading to an organic development direction with the efforts from both Inter-Government Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations.This has also provided an opportunity to study the international politics in a theoretical and smooth way for a deeper exploration.Despite of the fact that the current international community has not shaped into an entirely ideal community similar to a social state frame,however,many world-famous scholars have acknowledged the more and more important roles played by many Inter-Government Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations.Particularly,they have been especially important in coordinating international relationships in their fields respectively,which is difficulty for traditional international political realism to make a rational analysis.Under this situation,it is necessary to learn current international political environment firstly.Then,the paper aims to make an exploration of how Inter-Government Organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations are influencing the international politics by identifying their roles and functions among international community.
The Interpretation of International Politics
Contemporary international relations can be characterized by confusing and intertwined features.Nowadays,international community makes efforts to establish a fair and rational order for politics and economy,but has been repeatedly frustrated.It must be realized that world peace and stability is under huge pressure of traditional and non-traditional factors,and the development of human beings are facing unprecedented opportunities and challenges.In face of this situation,contemporary international relations have shown new tendencies in politics,economy,culture,military,security and so on,from which political relations are extremely important.
Nowadays,the contemporary international politics is experiencing a transition period,the general features are as follows.Peace and development are the major themes of the times.The world powers have transferred from poles towards multi-polarization tendency,indicating strengthened interdependence among different countries.The concept of power is central to international relations(Barnett,Duvall 2016).The main increase is shown from the increase in the number,type and power.On the other hand,nevertheless,worldwide hegemonism,aggressive politics,and terrorism are still existing,resulting in continuously regional conflicts and territorial wars.International politics can affect the development of the whole world,such as the collapse of bipolar structure,the collapse of the Soviet Union,the unifying of Germany,the rapid establishment of anti-terrorism alliance,the eastward expansion of North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO)and the conflicts occurring to Rwanda,Kashmir and so on.All of these reflect the rapidly changing political situations of contemporary international politics.On the whole,the pursuit of peace,stability,cooperation and development are the core issues of promoting international politics,and the most common appeal and concern for people all over the world.
The Development Process of IGO and NGO
International organizations are the product of international social,political and economical development to a certain stage and the product of multi-polarization development among different political powers.The organizations with modern significance have spent many decades for establishment and evolution.Particularly,the period after the Second World War has provided chances for their further development.It is a golden age for the history of international organizations before the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s(Qin,2004).A great number of Inter-Government Organizations represented by the United Unions came into existence throughout the whole world.In the meanwhile,more Non-Governmental Organizations developed rapidly with impressive scale.According to Union of International Associations(1992/93),there was a total number of 213 international organizations during the early 1900s.The number of international organizations then increased to 1117 in the year of 1956.Till the end of the Cold War in 1990,the amount of international organizations abruptly soared to 26,656,with a 25 multiplied relationship within 81 years.
The rapid development of these organizations are benefited from the evolution from international community since the end of the Second World War.The formation of the international trade market,the establishment of worldwide capital market and the spread of modern science and technology revolution have contributed to the interdependence among countries.Gradually,there are strongly supporting demands for international governance mechanism and organizations.The governance responsibilities of international organization are highly expected from worldwide people.There is a significant change occurring to international community participants.When traditional sovereign states and Inter-Government Organizations play a dominant role in dealing with international relations,the emergence of many Non-Governmental Organizations are also actively participant in international relations(Doh,Guay 2010).The gradual organizational mechanism of international organizations are not only reflected from the increase in their amount,but more importantly,the expansion in the scope of international organizations’activities.
The Roles and Impacts of Inter-Government OrganizationsThe Forum and Negotiating Place for International Community
For many sovereign states,the sovereign coexistence means that countries can have different or totally opposing arguments for international affairs.In this situation,they have demands for appropriate channels for a common communication and the IGO offer an international forum chances for different counties in a legal way.Inter-Government Organizations have a permanent and fixed international conference system,offering sites for member states for connection and communication.On the basis of equal participation in international political institutions,the member states are free to express their positions as well as arguments and fully discuss on international issues.This is beneficial to form international consensus in event declaration and public opinion,to coordination member states to take rational policies and actions.For instance,the United Unions have been playing an extremely important role in this area.
The Organizers and Promoters for International Legislation
There is no unified international legislation organization surpassing worldwide states.In a certain sense,the formulation of international rules can be taken as international legislation.Since the end of the Second World War,there have been many international rules,principle and systems intending to be adapted to the needs of different international communities(Qin,2004)..Basically,the drafting and permission of this regulations covering international political issues are largely accomplished by Inter-Government Organizations.A specialized agency in the UN responsible for the development and codification of international regulations,promoting the creation and adopting of a large number of international conventions.It can be acknowledged that it is the development of contemporary Inter-Government Organizations that has promoted the formation of international legislation.Therefore,international community has paid more and more attention to the supporting role from Inter-Government Organizations.
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