文章导读：今天给大家带来一篇 Paper代写 范文。这篇社会paper代写范文的研究也强调了教育和心理问题和障碍。Vernez指出,移民的孩子们面临着一系列广泛的特别教育。除了贫穷,这些挑战包括住宅...
The Special Needs of Immigrant Children
Ethnographic research,with its very specific,detailed focus on particular immigrant populations,has revealed considerable variation in the stories and circumstances of immigrant children,families,and groups.However,these studies have also highlighted several educational and psychosocial issues and obstacles that emerge for immigrant children in general.As Vernez(1996)points out,immigrant children face a broad array of“special”educational needs and circumstances.In addition to poverty,these challenges include“high residential mobility;coping with emotional stresses due to adjustments to new social norms and a new institutional environment,and/or traumas due to war,family disruptions or separations;and inadequate social support to compensate for broken community ties in their native countries and loss of support necessary for psychological well-being(p.3).”(See also McDonnell&Hill,1993;Suarez-Orozco and Suarez-Orozsco,1995;Rumbaut,1995,1994;Olsen,1988).The educational and psychosocial challenges faced by immigrant children in the United States today–English language acquisition,cultural and psychosocial adjustment,and for some,the effects of limited formal education–are undoubtedly complex and interconnected.
In Another Tongue:The Challenge of Learning a New Language
Most educators and social scientists agree that it is crucial for immigrant children to master the English language.Mastery of English can propel children into the educational mainstream,allowing them to excel in school and improve their chances of successful and meaningful post-graduation employment.10 There is some debate,however,on how best to arrive at mastery of English.Some European researchers have documented that mother tongue development facilitates the acquisition of second language,and thus argue that the first step in learning English should be mastery of the mother tongue(Paulsten,1978 cited in Cropley,1983).These authors explain that poor immigrant children are more likely to receive limited linguistic support at home,and therefore need more support in school to acquire the mother tongue.Cropley(1983)argued that English-only instruction,neglecting the mother tongue,fails to stimulate a general language orientation,so that neither the native language nor English is learned well.In this view,bilingual education fosters mastery of one’s native tongue as a first step,building the foundation for fluency in English.
The variability in the English language acquisition process for different ethnic groups has important implications for immigrant children,especially since pre-existing English knowledge has been linked to easier assimilation and more positive educational experiences(Rumbaut,1997).While Rumbaut(1997a)and other researchers(Olsen,1988)have found significant pre-migration English proficiency(particularly among the Indian and Filipino ethnic groups),many Mexicans and Latinos at the time of arrival are unable to speak English at all.Rumbaut points out that language acquisition is a function of age.“Essentially,the capacity to learn and to speak a language…is especially good between the ages of three and the early teens;immigrants who arrive before the age of 6 are considerably more likely to speak English without an accent,while those who arrive after puberty may learn it,but not without a telltale accent(p.502).”Clearly,the school environment,and the norms,values,and support offered there,plays an important role in facilitating language acquisition and adaptation in the broader sense,especially for the children who arrive with the least familiarity with the prevailing culture and language.
The Difficult Journey:The Challenge of Leaving Home
Relative to the attention given to instructional issues,few studies have looked at the impact of immigration on the mental health of children and adolescents(Padilla&Duran,1995;James,1997;Garcia-Coll&Magnuson,1997;Sam,1992;Laosa,1997,1989;Olsen,1988).Recently,however,researchers have begun to argue that supporting the psychological adjustment and mental health of immigrant students is just as important as education-related interventions such as English language programs and multicultural teacher training programs or the social outreach efforts of newcomer centers(Padilla&Duran,1995).In general,children who immigrate leave behind a familiar language,culture,community,and social system.They may also suffer from the trauma of losing a familiar place,leaving one or both parents,enduring harsh travel conditions,having difficulty finding food and shelter,and for those who enter the United States illegally,the added fear of being discovered and deported(James,1997;Castex,1997).These psychological challenges take an even greater toll on the poorest immigrant families who have coped with the harshest circumstances.（essay代写)
Further,Padilla&Duran(1995)found that“the psychological risks inherent in unstable and conflict-ridden environments may be intensified for children who cross national borders.Several serious mental health disorders,including depression and other psychosomatic and physical illnesses,i.e.post-traumatic stress disorder”(p.134)can arise from difficult transition in immigration.Padilla claims that Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is a notable problem among immigrant children from Central America and Asia(McNally,1991;Castex,1997;Olsen,1988)
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